Broadly this district can be divided into three geographical regions, namely, the Coastal belt, the inner alluvial plain and the North-Western hills. The coastal belt is about 26 Kms wide and shapes like a strip. In this region, sand dunes are noticed along the coast with some ridges. This region is mostly flooded with brackish water of estuarine rivers which is unsuitable for cultivation. But, presently this area is utilized for coconut and betel cultivation. Shrimp culture and salt manufacturing units are also developing in this area recently. The second contiguous geographical region is deltaic alluvial plain. It is a wide stretch of highly fertiled and irrigated land. This area is highly populous and devoid of any jungle. The third region, north-western hilly region covers most of Nilgiri Sub-division. It is mostly hilly terrain and vegetated with tropical semi-ever green forest. The hills of Nilgiri has highest peak of 1783 ft. above the sea level. The Scheduled Tribe persons of the district are mostly seen in this region of valuable forest resources and stone quarries.

The climate of Balasore district is mostly hot and humid. The hot season starts from March till May and followed by rainy season from June to September. During this period, south-west monsoon causes maximum rain. But the district experiences highest rain fall during July and August. Because of its strategic location, this district faces most of the cyclonic storm and depression which is raised from the Bay of Bengal. The cold season from December to February is very pleasant. The average temperature of the district varies between 22*C to 32*C and the average rain fall is 1583 mm.