The soil of Balasore district is mostly alluvial laterite. The soil of Central region is mostly clay, clay loam and sandy loam which is very fertile for paddy and other farm produces. Nilgiri Sub-division is mostly gravelly and lateritic soil, which is less fertile. A small strip of saline soil is also seen along the extreme coastal part of the district.

The climate of Balasore district is mostly hot and humid. The hot season starts from March till May and followed by rainy season from June to September. During this period, south-west monsoon causes maximum rain. But the district experiences highest rain fall during July and August. Because of its strategic location, this district faces most of the cyclonic storm and depression which is raised from the Bay of Bengal. The cold season from December to February is very pleasant. The average temperature of the district varies between 22*C to 32*C and the average rain fall is 1583 mm.